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Australian Scientists
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Information Sheet

Caroline Louisa Waring Atkinson (1834-1872) : Naturalist, Botanical Illustrator and Writer. Largely self-educated. A keen student of natural history and an accomplished botanical illustrator. She wrote 'A Voice in the Country' natural history series in the Sydney Morning Herald between 1861 and 1872 and was also published in the 'Horticultural Magazine'. Also provided Ferdinand von Mueller (Botanist and Naturalist) with plant specimens. She died during childbirth.

William Bragg (1862-1942) : Physicist. Professor of Physics and Mathematics at the University of Adelaide, 1886-1908. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1915, with his son Lawrence, 'for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays'.

Frank Macfarlane Burnet (1899-1985) : Medical Scientist and Biologist. Director of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne 1944-66. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 1960 with P. Medawar 'for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance'. His research areas included antibodies, polio, myxomatosis, and many other topics.

James Cook (1728-1779) : Navigator and Explorer. Commanded HMS Endeavour on its expedition to observe the transit of Venus at Tahiti in June 1769. His discovery of eastern Australia in 1770 opened this continent to the immediate contact and influence of science.

John Carew Eccles (1903-1997) : Physiologist. Born in Melbourne. Professor of Physiology at the Australian National University 1951-66. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 1963 (jointly) 'for discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane'. Professor of Physiology and Biophysics at the State University of New York, Buffalo 1968-75.

Howard Walter Florey (1898-1968) : Pathologist. Professor of Pathology, University of Sheffield 1931-35, and also at the University of Oxford 1935-62. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 1945 'for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases'. Chancellor of the Australian National University 1965-68.

Joan Freeman (1918- ) : Nuclear Physicist. During the Second World War , she worked at CSIR Radiophysics Laboratory developing a 10 centimetre microwave radar set. Moved to the UK to study at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, 1946-51. She worked for the British Atomic Energy Research Establishment for most her working life. In 1976 she became the first female to be awarded the British Institute of Physics' prestigious Rutherford Medal.

Elizabeth Gould (1804-1841) : British Natural History Artist. She visited Australia between 1838 and 1840 with her husband, John Gould, and completed a large number of drawings of Australian birds and mammals, many of which illustrated her husband's fourteen books on Australian birds and mammals.

Lawrence Hargrave (1850-1915) : Aeronautical Engineer and Astronomer. After participating in several explorations into New Guinea, Hargrave worked as an assistant astronomical observer at the Sydney Observatory 1878-83. He then devoted his time to research in aeronautics and human flight.

Dorothy Hill (1907-1997) : Geologist and Palaeontologist. Hill was Research Professor of Geology at the University of Queensland 1959-72. She has published widely on palaeontology, stratigraphy and geology. Hill was the first female Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science 1956, first Australian female elected to the Royal Society 1965, and first female President of the Australian Academy of Science in 1970.

William Morris (Billy) Hughes (1862-1952): Australian Politician. Born in London, UK. Emigrated to Australia in 1884. Labor Prime Minister (1915-16) during the Second World War. Attempted to bring in national conscription, which brought about his downfall. Joined the Nationalist Party after leaving the Labor Party.

Esmond Venner Keogh (1895-1970) : Medical Scientist and Epidemiologist. Medical Director of the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria 1955-68. Uresearch on malaria during the Second World War.

Phillip Law (1912- ) : Physicist and Antarctic Explorer. Studied Physics at the University of Melbourne. Participated in Optical Munitions research during the Second World War. Leader of the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions 1949-66. Responsible for the establishment of Mawson Base, Australia's first Antarctic base.

Leslie Harold Martin (1900-1983) : Physicist. Professor of Physics, at the University of Melbourne 1927-59. Commissioner of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission 1958-68. Dean of Military Studies and Professor of Physics, Royal Military College, Duntroon, 1967-70.

Douglas Mawson (1882-1958) : Geologist and Antarctic Explorer. Leader of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-14, and the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition 1929-31. Lecturer in Geology, University of Adelaide 1905-20 and Professor of Geology and Mineralogy 1921-52.

Hanna Neumann (1914-1971) : Mathematician. Born in Germany. Professor and Head of Department of Pure Mathematics, School of General Studies, Australian National University 1964-71.

Marcus Oliphant (1901- ) : Physicist. Worked at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, with Ernest Rutherford. First President of the Australian Academy of Science 1954-56. Governor of South Australia 1971-76.

Olive Muriel Pink (1884-1975) : Anthropologist and Botanical Artist. Sketched many desert flowers around Alice Springs. Responsible for the gazette of the twenty hectare Australian Arid Regions Flora Reserve in 1956. After her death it was renamed the Olive Pink Flora Reserve.

Alexander David Ross (1883-1966) : Physicist. Born in Scotland. Professor of Physics and Mathematics 1912-29 and of Physics 1929-52, at the University of Western Australia. His research interests were in the area of vacuum spectroscopy and optical astronomy. Involved in Optical Munitions research during the Second World War. He helped start the Australian Branch of the British Institute of Physics (1883-1966) and founded the Pan-Indian Science congress of fourteen countries.

Ernest William Titterton (1916-1990) : Physicist. Professor of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra 1950-81. He worked on a number of committees concerned with atomic energy and weapons, and was a tireless advocate for nuclear power.

John Stewart Turner (1908-1991) : Botanist and Plant Physiologist. Professor of Botany and Plant Physiology at the University of Melbourne 1938-73. During the Second World War he worked on tropic proofing optical instruments. Was a leader in the field of conservation.

Frederick White (1905-1994) : Physicist and Science Administrator. Born in New Zealand. He worked in the field of radiophysics for many years before becoming the Chair of CSIRO 1959-70.

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Published by the Australian Science Archives Project on ASAPWeb, 30 June 1997
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